In-vitro Fertilization – IVF
In Vitro Fertilization is a one assisted reproductive technology (ART) commonly referred to as IVF. IVF is the process of fertilization by manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish, and then transferring the embryo to the uterus.
Sperm Injection Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, pronounced /ɪksiː/, IK-see) is an in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg via micromanipulation.
Embryo culture is a component of in vitro fertilization where resultant embryos are allowed to grow for some time in an artificial medium and special gasses.
Assisted hatching is a newer lab technique that was developed when fertility experts observed that embryos with a thin zona pellucida had a higher rate of implantation during IVF. With assisted hatching, an embryologist uses micromanipulation under a microscope to create a small hole in the zona pellucida.
Embryo freezing Embryos can be frozen at any stage of development during the IVF process. Eggs that are fertilized can be frozen as early as 1 day after an egg retrieval procedure, but it is more common to allow embryos to develop for a number of days before freezing them. Embryos after 3 days of fertilization are called Cleavage Stage, and 5 days after fertilization are called Blastocysts.
Storage and Transfer
Pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) can evaluate the status of an embryo with regard to its chromosomal makeup. An abnormality in an embryo’s chromosomal configuration may cause a specific syndrome to occur in the offspring or may cause the pregnancy to miscarry. PGS is accomplished as part of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, commonly used to treat infertile couples. But, in this case, the embryos are tested for the presence or absence of specific chromosomal abnormalities prior to transfer into the uterus (IVF-PGS).
PGD, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, is the process of testing the embryo via biopsy after in vitro fertilization to perform specific genetic testing before transferring the embryo into to the uterus and thus prevent having an affected child.
Gender selection for Family Balancing and for sex-linked genetic disease prevention. Family Balancing is the term for gender selection done for the purposes of achieving a more balanced representation of both genders in a family.
Semen analysis, also known as a sperm count test, analyzes the health and viability of a man’s sperm. Semen is the fluid containing sperm (plus other sugars and proteins) that’s released during male ejaculation. A semen analysis measures three major factors of sperm health: the number of sperm, motility (movement) and morphology(shape)
Cryopreservation is a process where gametes (sperm or eggs) and embryos are preserved by cooling to very low temperatures (typically -196 °C using liquid nitrogen) for long term storage.